Em island england

em island england

Juni Sie wurden als Turnierfavorit gehandelt und blamierten sich im Achtelfinale gegen Island. England ist eine der großen EM-Enttäuschungen. Juni Der Sieg von Island gegen England war viel größer. EM-Sieg Dänemark ( ) und Griechenland (). Es ist England! Es ist Island!. Juni Der Sieg von Island gegen England war viel größer. EM-Sieg Dänemark ( ) und Griechenland (). Es ist England! Es ist Island!. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialismArthur Pentyand cooperative movement advocate G. Retrieved 8 July From club casino aachen corner, casino royale villiers ball breaks for Ragnar Sigurdsson, who blasts the ball straight at Joe Hart with a spectacular bicycle kick from the edge of the six-yard box. The History of a Dynasty. British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency, even if some people still speak the Wesg dota language. Retrieved 19 April During the Tudor periodthe Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity. With an almost an hour gone, England are embarrassing themselves here. Among notable introduced species, the cabbage palm Cordyline australis has been planted in em island england areas and may be seen in many gardens. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Beidermaßen and Privacy Policy. England competes in the Commonwealth Gamesheld every four years. Minute, aber Kane s Kopfball flog ihm genau in die Arme. Für die Datenverarbeitung ist dann der Drittanbieter verantwortlich. Er hielt dieses Szenario allerdings für "undenkbar". Beim ebenso überraschenden wie verdienten 2: Was die hochgehandelte Truppe aber gegen Island bot, war ein Offenbarungseid. In der zweiten Halbzeit hatten sie nicht eine echte Chance. Aber damit ist wohl nicht zu rechnen. Seit April stellvertretender Ressortleiter bei einestages. Durch drei folgende Siege, darunter im Rückspiel gegen die Tschechen und in den Niederlanden, übernahmen sie aber wieder die Tabellenführung. Die kommen wie scharfe Flanken in den Strafraum und führten wie schon zum Gruppenabschluss gegen Österreich 2: Kapitän Rooney verwandelte sicher unten links - der Favorit schien auf Kurs.

island england em -

Wir gehen niemals nach Hause! Islands Torschütze Sigurdsson ordnete den sensationellen Sieg sofort ein: Stattdessen hatte Island sogar das 3: Seit April stellvertretender Ressortleiter bei einestages. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Das hebt die Stimmung im Land sicher enorm. Nach so einem desaströsen Achtelfinale und einer schwachen Vorrunde müssten die Rufe nach einem Umbruch in der Nationalmannschaft laut werden. In der weiteren Vorbereitung spielten die Isländer gegen Mannschaften, die sich nicht für die Endrunde qualifiziert hatten. Fünf Spieler spielen derzeit zweitklassig. Du kannst raus aus Europa!

Em island england -

Wenn wir uns gut vorbereiten und mit der gleichen Einstellung spielen, können wir jeden schlagen" Islands Trainer Heimir Hallgrimsson. Aber England würde sich doch nicht wirklich ein zweites Mal aus Europa verabschieden? Die erste gute Torwartaktion dieser Partie gab es nach knapp einer halben Stunde. Bjarnason — Bödvarsson Mein Einverständnis hierzu kann ich jederzeit widerrufen. Sigurdsson, Skulason — Gudmundsson, Gunnarsson, G. Ja, die langen Einwürfe von Aron Gunnarsson seien "eine Waffe", sagte Hodgson, aber im Training würde man sich schon darauf vorbereiten.

Dire stuff from England, as first Rooney gives the ball away deep inside his own half, then moments later Kyle Walker follows suit. England need some cool heads out there, to get somebody composed on the ball.

Johan Gudmondsson gets forward for Iceland and shoots on goal. Over the bar, but not by much. Sigurdsson clearing tackle went for a corner, which was only cleared as far as Wayne Rooney.

He sends a cross high over the box and everyone in it. Jamie Vardy is put through on goal down the inside left by Dele Alli, but his first touch is poor.

He chases the ball into the penalty area, but is dispossessed by a wonderfully timed tackle by Ragnar Sigurdsson. That is astonishingly good defending.

Rooney picks up the ball on the right flank, shapes to shimmy past Gylfi Sigurdsson and runs straight into him.

He does win a throw-in, from which nothing comes. It sails well wide of the right upright. Aron Gunarsson was booked for the foul that led to the free-kick.

Those who were touting Wayne Rooney as the second coming of Andres Iniesta earlier in this tournament may need to revise their opinion.

Beyond scoring the penalty from which England took their lead, his impact has been negligible. Another overhit, speculative ball from deep into the Iceland penalty area, wafted in the direction of a well marked Jamie Vardy.

Iceland goalkeeper Hannes Halldorson mops up at the back once again. Kyle Walker attempts to cross into the Iceland penalty area from the right.

Gylfi Sigurdsson and Kolbein Sigthorsson are back to block and clear the ball. A deflected Daniel Sturridge cross from the right bounces up for Dele Alli.

He swings his right foot and shins the ball over the bar. Raheem Sterling off, Jamie Vardy on. England have a throw-in deep in Iceland territory, which Danny Rose takes.

England win a throw-in deep in Iceland territory and Kyle Walker chucks it long into the penalty area. With an almost an hour gone, England are embarrassing themselves here.

Their movement is ponderous and predictable and if anything, their performance in this second half is even worse than the shift they put in before the interval.

Marine mammals include the bottlenosed dolphin [] and grey seal. Historically the island has given its name to a variety of overly-large cabbage, the Jersey cabbage , also known as Jersey kale or cow cabbage.

Japanese Knotweed Fallopia japonica is an invasive species that threatens Jersey's biodiversity. The first lifeboat was equipped, funded by the States, in The RNLI established a lifeboat station in Jersey has adopted the emergency number alongside its existing emergency number.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Jersey disambiguation. For other uses, see GBJ disambiguation.

Rank based on population density of Channel Islands, i. The States of Jersey issue their own sterling notes and coins see Jersey pound.

In a referendum on 16 October , voters rejected a proposal to adopt Central European Time by External relations of Jersey.

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List of schools in Jersey. List of people from Jersey. Channel Islands portal Jersey portal Normandy portal. Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 31 May Place of birth, ethnicity, length of residency, marital status" PDF.

Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 18 May Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 8 July The Stationery Office Ltd.

Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 16 August Office of Public Sector Information.

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Not for Filthy Lucre's Sake. The Development of American Agriculture. University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved 18 August Archived from the original on 22 October Archived from the original on 3 October Tax havens and the men who stole the world.

Part XI of Volume 1. Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original PDF on 12 August Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 22 August The Origin and Development of Jersey law: Jersey and Guernsey Law Review.

Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 13 August Archived from the original on 17 January Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 6 November The Wall Street Journal.

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Retrieved 2 December Jersey Battle of Flowers Association. Archived from the original on 25 August Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on 14 December Archived from the original on 7 September Archived from the original on 2 December Archived from the original on 15 September Retrieved 28 August Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 26 April The rise and rise of an island side".

Retrieved 13 May Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April States of Jersey www. Retrieved 28 June Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.

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The Coutances Connection, C. Davies Religion, History and G. The Reformation in Jersey, by J. The Process of Change over Two centuries, J.

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List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.

The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus , specifically the 4th-century BC De Mundo: In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne ".

It either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover the only part of Britain visible from the European mainland [25] or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones " [26] in the now lost Massaliote Periplus , that is attested through Avienus ' Ora Maritima [27] to which the former presumably served as a source.

Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor , dating to approximately , years ago.

By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronze , and later iron from iron ores.

The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs , advancing agriculture for instance, with Celtic fields , as well as the production of more effective weapons.

Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy 's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area.

Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans.

The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius , subsequently conquering much of Britain , and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.

Later, an uprising led by Boudica , Queen of the Iceni , ended with Boudica's suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street.

There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier.

According to Bede , missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church.

There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea , while others claim through Lucius of Britain.

This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology.

Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church.

Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles , Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province and began to settle, initially in the eastern part of the country.

Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age.

The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement.

Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, disappeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from onwards.

During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria , Mercia , Wessex , East Anglia , Essex , Kent and Sussex.

Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.

Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw.

A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by his son Cnut in , turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.

However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in , accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy.

Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century [52] and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.

During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War.

During the Tudor period , the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity.

Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England.

In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological.

There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.

Competing with Spain , the first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke.

The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. During the Elizabethan period , England was at war with Spain.

An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy. The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham.

This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in and , but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in , when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I , thereby creating a personal union.

It has not only been ranked with Shakespeare 's works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language but also was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.

Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.

This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland and Ireland.

The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth.

Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed.

After the Glorious Revolution of , it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.

This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.

In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards [70] with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.

In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.

After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, [71] the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.

Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution , a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.

During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester , dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively.

During the Napoleonic Wars , Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.

The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people , shared with the Scots and Welsh. London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire — as well as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious.

Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation , and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle 's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.

The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.

Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century. Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.

Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system.

Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.

In the United Kingdom general election, , the Conservative Party won seats the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservative , more than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority.

As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament.

Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.

Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum, this has not been carried out.

One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law [] legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries [] and the United States except Louisiana.

Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.

The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.

It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.

The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.

After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.

London accepted in However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.

Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.

Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council. They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas.

The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.

Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.

Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.

It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: England is closer to the European continent than any other part of mainland Britain. Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country.

The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.

The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.

The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers. They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District.

In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.

England has a temperate maritime climate: The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.

Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England [] and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.

England is a leader in the chemical [] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.

Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution. The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.

England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.

The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.

It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.

It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.

Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.

With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.

The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.

The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellites , is also part of Astrium. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.

With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.

Inventions and discoveries of the English include: Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.

Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.

The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle [] much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.

The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.

These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.

The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers.

The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.

The National Health Service NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.

It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people.

In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the s: England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.

During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Thanks in large part to the British Empire , the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.

English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.

There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, [] but English is the only language used for official business.

Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.

As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, [] [] and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.

Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, [] and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.

State schools teach students a second language , usually French, German or Spanish. However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.

In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.

Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.

A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.

The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.

There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.

According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.

The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.

Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school. Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations.

Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.

A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.

Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.

Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.

Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.

Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge , Devil's Arrows , Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.

Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.

Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism , [] [] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.

After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.

Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.

In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.

With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.

Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.

Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith , [] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.

During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.

Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.

Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.

The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ' s best restaurant in the world charts.

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.

Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.

Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti.

Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.

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Em Island England Video

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